From the Editors
As editors, we feel privileged to have been asked to edit the eleventh edition of Present Knowledge in Nutrition. The 11th edition moves this major nutrition reference source beyond its 65-year history and into an explosion of exciting new methodologies and understandings of the role of diet and nutrition in human health and well-being. In a global survey conducted in 2017, Present Knowledge in Nutrition was identified as a key resource for the latest information in the nutrition field for nutrition and dietetic professionals and clinicians. Specifically, survey participants stated that Present Knowledge in Nutrition was the source to which they turned when seeking the latest information in an area of nutrition that was outside their main expertise. Further, Present Knowledge in Nutrition is valued as an academic text in advanced nutrition courses. Recognizing the important role of the periodic updates of Present Knowledge in Nutrition among scientists and practitioners, as editors we have sought to maintain the longstanding tradition of identifying content thought leaders to provide the most comprehensive and latest information in their fields in the chapters represented in this edition.
The 11th edition of Present Knowledge in Nutrition is presented in two companion volumes: Volume 1: Basic Nutrition and Metabolism; and Volume 2: Clinical and Applied Topics in Nutrition. Provision of two volumes enables the reader to more quickly identify the location of relevant materials and makes the hard copies of this 74-chapter edition more physically portable. This 11th edition includes full color illustrations and other color-enhanced features. At the end of each chapter, the authors also clearly have identified important research gaps and needs for future research. Volume 1 includes chapters that provide the latest scientific knowledge on specific nutrients and new chapters which discuss important cross disciplinary topics including systems biology, the microbiome, and the role of nutrition in regulation of immune function. Volume 2 provides the most recent up-to-date information on life-stage nutrition, obesity and physical activity, nutrition monitoring, and clinical nutrition.
We believe the authors have done an outstanding job in presenting the latest information in their respective fields and hope this edition will continue the long tradition of being an essential resource broadly in the nutrition field.
Bernadette P. Marriott
Charleston, South Carolina
Diane F. Birt
Virginia A. Stallings
Allison A. Yates
Johnson City, Tennessee
Development of a book of this in-depth and highly scientifically current content represents a large commitment of time and effort by many people. First, we would like to thank the authors of the 72 chapters for their commitment to this volume and most importantly their dedication to presenting the best information of the current status of the science in their respective fields. Second, this edition would not have come to fruition without the untiring work and guidance of Allison Worden and James Cameron of the International Life Sciences Institute. We appreciated very much the early guidance of the editors of the 10th edition, John Erdman and Steven Zeisel, as we were forming the 11th edition concept. Key to any endeavor of this size is the support of family, colleagues and friends to which we owe our gratitude for their forbearance during the many hours devoted to its development and production.
About the Editors
Bernadette P. Marriott, PhD
Bernadette P. Marriott holds the position of Professor Emerita, and Nutrition Section Director Emerita, Departments of Medicine and Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC). Bernadette has over 35 years of experience in the fields of nutrition, psychology, and comparative medicine with expertise in diet, nutrition and chronic disease. Dr. Marriott has worked in scientific and administration positions in the federal government, the National Academies, universities, and foundations. She was founding director of the Office of Dietary Supplements, NIH and Deputy Director, Food and Nutrition Board, NAS. Her research has focused on both human and animal nutrition and related behavioral studies (in humans: diet and health research, and food labeling; in animals: nonhuman primate nutrition and behavioral ecology). She is currently leading or has recently led research projects funded by the Army, DoD, NSF, NIH, USDA, industry, and foundations. Bernadette Marriott has a BSc in biology/immunology from Bucknell University (1970), a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland (1976) and postgraduate training in trace mineral nutrition, comparative medicine, and advanced statistics. She has published extensively, is on a number of national committees and university scientific advisory boards, and is a frequent speaker on diet, dietary supplements and health. She is currently a member of the Food and Nutrition Board, U.S. National Academy of Sciences and Chair of the American Society for Nutrition Committee on Advocacy and Science Policy. In 2016 Dr. Marriott was inducted as a Fellow of the American Society for Nutrition.
Allison A. Yates, PhD
Allison A. Yates holds Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from the University of California at Los Angeles in public health and dietetics, a PhD from the University of California at Berkeley in nutrition, and is a registered dietitian having completed a dietetic internship at the VA Center in Los Angeles. She served on the faculties of the University of Texas Health Science Center in Houston, Emory University School of Medicine, and was the founding Dean of the College of Health and Human Sciences at the University of Southern Mississippi, where she led the development of the first accredited public health program in the state. Her research focused on human protein and energy requirements. In 1994 she was named Director of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine of the U.S. National
Academy of Sciences, where, over a 10-year period, she led the expanded approach to establishing human requirements and recommendations for nutrients, termed Dietary Reference Intakes, for the United States and Canada. She then served as Director of the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center of the U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service (ARS), and served as Associate Director for the ARS Beltsville Area region, retiring from USDA in 2014, when she was also inducted as a fellow of the American Society for Nutrition. Since that time she has led a volunteer effort to establish a framework for establishing reference values for bioactive components in foods.
Diane F. Birt, PhD
Diane F. Birt is Distinguished Professor in Food Science and Human Nutrition at Iowa State University. She has B.S. degrees in Home Economics and Chemistry from Whittier College (1971) and a Ph.D. in Nutrition from Purdue University (1975). Her expertise is in diet and cancer prevention and plant components and health promotion. She was at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (1976-1997) before becoming Chair of the department of Food Science and Human Nutrition (1997-2004) at Iowa State University. Dietary prevention of cancer has been a long-standing interest in the Birt laboratory. More recent research has focused on the prevention of colon cancer by slowly digested maize starches using cell culture and animal models that reflect particular genetic changes that are important in human colon cancer development. She was on the Board of Scientific Counselors for the National Toxicology Program (US Department of Health) and the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, U.S. National Academy of Sciences. In 2015 Dr. Birt was inducted as a Fellow of the American Society for Nutrition and in 2016 she was inducted as a member of the National Academy of Medicine.
Virginia Stallings, MD, MS
Virginia Stallings is a Professor of Pediatrics at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and is the recipient of the Jean A. Cortner Endowed Chair in Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. She holds a BS in Nutrition and Food from Auburn University, MS in Nutrition and Biochemistry from Cornell University, and MD from the University of Alabama Birmingham. Her general pediatric residency was completed at the University of Virginia followed by a subspecialty fellowship in nutrition at the Hospital for Sick Children. Over her career at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia she contributed to clinical care, fellow and faculty training and clinical and translational research in the abnormalities of growth, nutritional status and health of children with chronic diseases and in those in good health. She has served on many National Academy of Sciences committees to advise on child health, nutrition and federal nutrition programs and is a member of the National Academy of Medicine. The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Society for Nutrition have recognized her efforts with awards for science, mentoring, and service.